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英语早间课堂:What do you say if ?

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2020年06月30日

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Morning!I am Juliet. Nice to meet you through network. Hope we could spend a wonderful morning together. An hour in the morning is worth two hours in the evening.

一天之计在于晨,若您有个美好晨间生活,相信您一天的生活都是美好的。A hard beginning makes a good ending. 常言道:善始善终。

【疑难问题】

We learned “What do you if…?” and “What would you say if…?” I’ve received a lot of letters from my dear friends in which they ask what the differences are between them. “Are they are ways to ask for an agreement? Yeah , right! Are they the same? Nope! And what do you say to precative in a complex sentence including a clause introduced by "if' ?

【答疑解惑】

"What do you say...? "means "if something happens , how do you react?" And "What would you say...?" means "If something happened , how would you react?' Can you spot the differences in their explanations? We should pay attention to "happens , happened"and "do you , would you". Those are the key points. "What do you say if ..." shows something talked about is possible to come into reality. And "What would you say if ...?" shows something we talked about is impossible to happen or to be real.

So , we need to know about two conceptions: Sentences of Real Condition and Sentences of Unreal Condition. 真实条件句和虚拟条件句。What are called Sentences of Real Condition and Sentences of Unreal Condition?真实条件句就是假设的情况时有可能发生的,而虚拟条件句是纯然的一种假设,是不可能成为现实的。

Let's look at a sentence : how to translate”如果我有足够的钱我就买一条电脑。”这个句子是真实条件句还是虚拟条件句呢?这个就要看说话者当时的情境了。如果这个是连饭都吃不饱的人,看见别人在玩电脑,就这么说一句,是纯然的假设。而一个刚毕业的大学生,有了工作,现在还没有钱,但是工作几个月后就有钱了,那么这个假设是可以实现的。

【虚拟条件句】If I had enough money, I would buy a computer.

【真实条件句】 If I have enough money , I will buy a computer.

【习题答案及点评】

1 如果我有地图,我就借给你。

If I had a map, I would lend it to you.

【点评】

1 说话者在当时没有地图,知识纯粹假设这么说说而已。

2 此句是对现在情况的一种假设,主句谓语动词用would+动词原形,从句用动词的一般过去式。

2 如果我是你,我就会在房子周围中很多树木。

If I were you, I would plant many trees round the house,【点评】

1 一个人永远都不可能是另外一个人,因此这里完全是假设。

2 这个句子是对现在情况的一种假设,主句谓语动词用would+动词原形,从句用动词的一般过去式。

3 要是Helen在这里有多好呀?

If Helen were here, how nice it would be.

【点评】

1 说话者说辞句话是Helen不在,只是说话者的一种主观意愿而已。

2 该句子是对现在情况的一种希望,主句谓语动词用would+动词原形,从句用动词的一般过去式。

3 Helen是三人称单数,谓语动词可以用was,也可以用were. If Helen was here, how nice it would be. 注意了,只有点人称单数才能这样用。第一人称和第二人称单数在虚拟语气中的系动词一定要用be动词的复数的过去形式,即:were.

4 如果她辞职,谁来顶替她的位子。

If she resigned, who would take her place? If she were to resign, who would take her place. 【点评】

1 这句话可以判断为真实条件句,也可以判断为虚拟条件句。

2 作为虚拟条件句,此句是对未来情况的一种假设,主语谓语动词用would + 动词原形,从句用一般过去式。

3 从句中的过去式可以改为were(was) + to不定式。

5 要是我来做这个工作,我会是另外一种做法。

If I were to do the job, I would do it in a different way. If I did the job, I would do it in a different way.

【点评】

1 这句话可以判断为真实条件句,也可以判断为虚拟条件句。

2 作为虚拟条件句,此句是对未来情况的一种假设,主语谓语动词用would + 动词原形,从句用一般过去式。

3 从句中的过去式可以改为were(was) + to不定式。

【总结】

综上所看,对现在和将来情况的猜测和主观愿望,在条件句中,其谓语形式如下:主句是would+动词原形,从句是动词一般过去式。此外,如果从句中的谓语动词是实义动词的话可以用were(was)+to动词不定式。另外注意,如果从句中的谓语动词是系动词的话,第一,二人称单数只能用were,第三人称单数可以用was,were

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