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打屁股在美国已经有所减少,但儿科医生担心流行病的影响

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2020年08月01日

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Spanking has declined in America, but pediatricians worry about impact of pandemic

打屁股在美国已经有所减少,但儿科医生担心流行病的影响

Millennials and Gen X parents appear to be spanking their kids less than previous generations, according to a research letter published Monday in the medical journal JAMA Pediatrics.

周一发表在医学杂志《美国医学会杂志·儿科学》上的一份研究报告显示,千禧一代和X一代的父母打孩子的次数似乎比前几代人少。

"This article is really impressive ... and corresponds with our view that there's been a generational change," Dr. Robert Sege said, lead author of the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement on corporal punishment.

“这篇文章真让人印象深刻。。。这与我们的观点一致,那就是一代人的变化,”美国儿科学会关于体罚的政策声明的主要作者罗伯特·塞格博士说。

打屁股在美国已经有所减少,但儿科医生担心流行病的影响

"Younger people tend not to hit their children," said Sege, who was not involved in the new study. "As we've woken up to the issues of domestic violence and intimate partner violence there's been a growing rejection of any sort of violence within the home, including spanking."

“年轻人往往不打他们的孩子,” 塞格说,他没有参与这项新研究。“当我们意识到家庭暴力和亲密伴侣暴力的问题时,越来越多的人拒绝任何形式的家庭暴力,包括打屁股。”

The new analysis used data from the Monitoring the Future study, a national survey of 25 consecutive groups of graduating high school seniors between 1993 and 2017. Each group was reassessed 17 years later, at about 35 years of age. The study excluded those without children or with older children.

这项新的分析使用了来自监测未来研究的数据,该研究在1993年至2017年间对25个连续的高中毕业生群体进行了调查。每一组在17年后,大约35岁时被重新评估。这项研究排除了那些没有孩子或有更大孩子的人。

Some 50% of parents reported spanking a child in 1993; By 2017 that number was down to 35%. While excellent news, that number is still too high by standards set by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2018.

大约50%的父母报告在1993年打过孩子;到2017年,这一数字降至35%。尽管是个好消息,但以美国儿科学会2018年制定的标准来看,这个数字还是太高了。

The pediatricians' group suggests adults caring for children use "healthy forms of discipline" -- such as positive reinforcement of appropriate behaviors, setting limits and setting expectations -- and not use spanking, slapping, threatening, insulting, or humiliating.

儿科医生小组建议,照顾儿童的成年人应使用“健康的管教形式”——例如积极加强适当的行为、设定限制和设定期望值——而不是使用打屁股、打耳光、威胁、侮辱、或羞辱的方式。

"Parents should never hit their child and never use verbal insults that would humiliate or shame the child," said Sege, who directs the Center for Community-engaged Medicine at Tufts University in Boston.

波士顿塔夫茨大学社区参与医学中心的负责人塞格说:“父母不应该打孩子,也不应该使用侮辱或羞辱孩子的言语侮辱。”

打屁股在美国已经有所减少,但儿科医生担心流行病的影响

One preliminary study during the first six weeks of the pandemic, by theRapid Assessment of Pandemic Impact on Development, or RAPID, project of the University of Oregon, found an immediate increase in both caregiver stress and emotional and behavioral issues in children.

俄勒冈大学“大流行对发展影响的快速评估”项目在大流行前六周进行的一项初步研究发现,照料者的压力以及儿童的情绪和行为问题立即增加。

Since then, emotional and mental difficulties have appeared to ease for children and their parents, the survey found, with key exceptions: Stress indicators in lower-income and single-parent households were continuing to increase as the weeks went by.

调查发现,自那以后,孩子和父母的情绪和精神问题似乎得到了缓解,但有几个关键的例外:随着时间的推移,低收入和单亲家庭的压力指标继续上升。

To uncover what is happening across the country, the American Academy of Pediatrics and Prevent Child Abuse America will begin a longitudinal study in August of how parents across the country are coping.

为了了解全国正在发生的事情,美国儿科学会和防止虐待儿童协会将在8月份开始一项纵向研究,调查全国的父母是如何应对的。

打屁股在美国已经有所减少,但儿科医生担心流行病的影响

"We plan to really look deeply at what are the positive experiences that children are receiving? What are their adverse experiences and how are parenting practices changing during all of it?" Sege said.

“我们计划真正深入研究孩子们正在接受哪些积极的体验?”他们的不良经历是什么?在整个过程中,父母的做法发生了怎样的变化?”塞格说。

"All of us who care about children are very concerned about what happens if the extra benefits, the unemployment benefits and all of those things no longer exist," he added.

他补充道:“我们所有关心儿童的人都非常担心,如果额外福利、失业福利和所有这些东西不再存在,会发生什么情况。”

Making sure that Americans don't revert to corporal punishment is key, experts say. An increasing amount of research shows that the end results of corporal punishment may not be positive.

专家说,关键是要确保美国人不会重蹈体罚的覆辙。越来越多的研究表明体罚的最终结果可能不是积极的。

"The point of disciplining a child is teaching that child self-regulation when Mom and Dad aren't around," Sege said. "Spanking doesn't accomplish that."

塞格说:“管教孩子的重点是在父母不在的时候教会孩子自律。”“打屁股并不能达到这个目的。”


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