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英语六级考试——写作真题选析之应用写作型

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2020年09月16日

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六、应用写作型

(一)题型描述

   应用文写作是四、六级教学大纲的要求,具体包括书信、通知、便条、简历等的写作。但考虑到词数和主观发挥余地等因素,在六级考试中具备可考性的只有书信。因此下面主要讲解书信的写作。

   书信既有实用性,又比较利于考生发挥。六级考到书信的年份有2005年12月、2005年1月、2004年6月、2002年1月和2001年6月。

   从写信的对象和信的正式程度来看,书信又可以分为私人书信和公务书信。私人书信的对象一般是关系较亲密、熟悉的人,沟通的内容也比较轻松、简单,如2001年6月的真题。公务书信的写信对象一般比较陌生,而且沟通的内容也比较严肃,如2005年12月、2005年1月、2004年6月和2002年1月的真题。而且根据写信的目的,公务书信又可以分为申请信、邀请信、求职信、道歉信、感谢信、表扬信和投诉信等等。

(二)真题示例

   私人书信:

   2001年6月

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter.Suppose you are Zhang Ying.Write a letter to Xiao Wang,a schoolmate of yours who is going to visit you during a weeklong holiday.You should write at least 120 words according to the suggestions given below in Chinese.

   1.表示欢迎。

   2.提出对度假安排的建议。

   3.提醒应注意的事项。

   公务书信:

   2002年1月

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic:A Letter to the University President about the Canteen Service on Campus.You should write at least 120 words,and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

   假设你是李明,请你就本校食堂的状况给校长写一封信,内容应涉及食堂的饭菜质量、价格、环境、服务等,可以是表扬,可以是批评建议,也可以兼而有之。

(三)整体构思

   从考过的这些真题来看,书信题一般都会给出明确的三点提纲,而且一般来说按照提纲写成三段正文即可。只不过需要注意一下格式。除了正文以外,书信一般包括以下三点:

   ·时间

   ·称呼

   ·落款

   时间一般写在右上角,用考试当天的时间即可,如June 17,2014。

   称呼根据私人书信和公务书信而有所不同。私人书信一般用Dear 加上对方的姓名即可,如Dear Xiao Wang;公务书信一般不知道对方的姓名,而且即使知道姓名也不宜直呼其名,因此一般用Dear 加上其职务名,如给校长写信称呼为Dear Mr.President,给编辑写信称呼为Dear Mr./Miss Editor,如果对对方一无所知则称其为Dear Sir/Madam。

   落款一般为Yours...加姓名。私人书信的Yours...部分一般用Yours truly或Yours即可,关系十分亲密的,如家庭成员之间、恋人之间等也可以用love。公务书信一般用Yours sincerely,特别体现尊敬可以用Yours respectfully。Yours和后面所跟的单词顺序也可以颠倒。

   另外,特别要注意的是,由于众所周知的原因,写信人的姓名一般会在Directions中给出,因此不要写自己的真名。

   除此之外,在落款之前也常常有一些固定的客套话作为结尾,如Best wishes(私人书信)或Best regards(公务书信)。

   但除此之外,书信就没有什么固定的语句了,只要做到字迹清楚、段落明朗、内容完整、紧扣提纲、语法正确、语言闪光、篇幅够长,都可以得高分。只是有时候题目可能未明确给出三点提纲,需要考生自己有分段的意识。一般来说可以按以下三点来分段:

   ·简要说明写信的事由

   ·说明写信的具体理由

   ·再次申明写信的目的

(四)分段写作

   书信的分段写作并无固定的模式,只需注意用词的灵活、闪光,句式的多样,并且要通过平时练习扩展思路。现在我们总结出一些公务书信常用的句型,给大家作为参考。

   开头

   I am...and I am writing to(you about)...

   我是……,我给你(们)写信是关于……

   如:

   1.I am a student from Tsinghua University and I am writing to you about my experience of buying a dictionary and my complaint about the service of a bookstore.

   我是一名来自清华大学的学生,我给你们写信是反映我买字典的一次经历以及我对一家书店服务的投诉。

   2.I am a sophomore from the Department of Computer Science and I am writing to you about the food and service in the canteen on campus.

   我是一名来自计算机科学系的大二学生,我给您写信是反映校园食堂的饭菜和服务情况的。

   3.I am Li Ming,dean of the History Department,Peking University,and I am writing to invite you to participate in an international convention that is to be held in Beijing.

   我是北京大学历史系主任李明,写信邀请您参加将在北京举行的一个国际会议。

   4.I am a student from Tsinghua University and I'm writing to extend my heartfelt thanks to all the nurses and doctors in your hospital.

   我是一名来自清华大学的学生,我写信是想表达我对贵医院所有医护人员的衷心感谢。

   结尾

   投诉信:

   1.I hope that this letter can draw your attention and the problem mentioned above can be solved as soon as possible.

   我希望这封信能够引起您的注意,并希望上述问题可以尽快得到解决。

   2.I strongly suggest that a repairman should be sent to my home without delay.I wonder if you could find out the exact cause of the problem as soon as possible.If you can't,I am afraid that I will request for full amount of refund.

   我强烈建议立即派一名维修人员到我家来。我不知道你们能否尽快找出问题的确切原因。如果不能,恐怕我会要求全额退款。

   邀请信:

   1.Please let me know your date of arrival if you can come.If you have any questions,please don't hesitate to contact me.Look forward to your reply.

   如果您能来,请告知我您的抵达日期。如果您有任何问题,请尽管与我联系。期待您的答复。

   2.I shall be much obliged if you could do us the favor by being present at the conference.

   如果您能光临会议,我将感激不尽。

   感谢信:

   1.Please allow me to convey again my sincere greetings toward...

   请允许我再次向……表达我诚挚的问候。

   2.Nothing can express my gratitude except my best wishes to...

   除了我对……最美好的祝愿,没有什么能表达我的感谢。

   3.If you have anything that needs my help,please don't hesitate to contact me.

   如果您有什么事需要我的帮助,请尽管与我联系。

   道歉信:

   1.In order to make up for my absence/mistake,I would...

   为了弥补我的缺席/错误,我会……

   2.My sincere apologies again.

   再次表达我真诚的歉意。

(五)高分模板

   如果说书信有高分模板,投诉信和求职信可以算得上能总结得比较多的了。

   1.投诉信(2002年1月真题)

   范文

   January 12th,2002

   Dear Mr.President,

   I am a sophomore from this university and I am writing to you about my experience of dining in a canteen on campus and my complaint about its service.

   It was about a month ago.I went to Student Canteen No.2 to have lunch.It was only after I finished the lunch and went to buy some drinks that I found a lot of money on my card was missing.Obviously,the previous staff made a mistake in operation and deducted too much money from my account.But when I went back to the canteen to tell them about the matter,they said that I should have checked the balance before I left the counter.According to them,it was my fault and they held no responsibility for the whole matter.

   What I want to say is that sincerity and enthusiasm are vital to the service sector of a university.It was quite easy for them to check the transaction record and make a correction but they refused to do so.They will lose all customers if they persist in doing so.I hope that this letter can draw the attention of the whole university and that the problem can be solved as soon as possible.

   Best regards.

   Yours sincerely,

   Li Ming

   译文

   2002年1月12日

   亲爱的校长先生:

   我是本校一名大二的学生,我给您写信是反映我在校园某食堂就餐的经历以及对其服务的投诉。

   大约一个月前,我去学生第二食堂吃午饭。当我吃完午饭去买饮料时才发现我卡里的很多钱不翼而飞。显然,此前的服务人员操作有误,从我的账户中多扣除了许多钱。但是,当我回到食堂告诉他们此事时,他们说我应该在离开柜台之前检查好余额。按他们的说法,这是我的错,他们对整件事情没有责任。

   我想说的是,诚意和热情对一所大学的服务部门来说是至关重要的。他们检查一下交易记录、更正一下是很容易的,但他们拒绝这样做。如果他们坚持这样,他们将失去所有的客户。我希望这封信能引起整个学校的关注,并且希望这一问题可以尽快解决。

   最真挚的问候。

   此致

   敬礼

   李明

   2.求职信(模拟题)

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter of application for a job.You should write at least 150 words and you should base your composition on the outline(given in Chinese)below:

   假定你是李明,是北京外国语大学(Beijing Foreign Studies University)一名英语专业的学生。你在China Daily上看到一则招聘广告:Microsoft China要招聘口译员。你认为自己符合条件,请写一封申请信。

   范文

   June 17th,2014

   Dear Sir/Madam,

   I am responding to your advertisement in China Daily on June 10th,2014,which invites applications for interpreters.Enclosed with this letter is my resume which details my background.

   I believe that I am the best candidate for this position.In the first place,I have been studying English for four years in Beijing Foreign Studies University,one of the most prestigious language schools in China,which has provided me with a desirable command of English skills.In the second place,I have taken part in a number of social activities in the past years,which have helped cultivate my team spirit and creativity.Besides,I have attended training courses for interpretation and have obtained related certificates.Last but not least,I have worked as a part?time interpreter,so I am well prepared for this job.

   I would treasure the chance and exert every effort to do a good job if I had the luck to be provided with the position.Moreover,I shall be much obliged if you will afford me an opportunity for an interview,and I appreciate a response from you at your earliest convenience.

   Thank you for considering this application.

   Best regards.

   Yours sincerely,

   Li Ming

   译文

   2014年6月17日

   尊敬的先生/女士:

   我是看了2014年6月10日贵公司在《中国日报》上招聘口译员的广告才给您写这封信的。随信附上我的简历,详细列明我的背景。

   我相信我是这个职位的最佳人选。首先,我在中国最负盛名的语言学校之一——北京外国语大学学习了四年英语,这使我很好地掌握了英语技能。其次,在过去几年中我参加了很多社会活动,这有助于培养我的团队精神和创造力。此外,我还参加了口译培训课程,并获得了相关证书。最后但同样重要的是,我做过兼职口译员,所以对于这份工作我做好了充分的准备。

   如果我有幸能得到这个职位,我会珍惜这个机会,尽一切努力做好我的工作。此外,如果您愿意给我提供面试的机会,我将非常感激。感谢您在您方便时尽早回应。

   感谢您考虑我的申请。

   最诚挚的问候。

   此致

   敬礼

   李明

(六)学以致用

   套用上面这两个模板就可以轻松地写出更多同类题目,如:

   1.投诉信(2004年6月真题)

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter to the editor of a newspaper complaining about the poor service of a bookstore.You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:

   设想你买了一本英文字典,发现有这样那样的质量问题,书店的服务态度又不好,因此给报社编辑写信。信中必须包含以下内容:

   1.事情的起因。

   2.与书店交涉的经过。

   3.呼吁服务行业必须提高服务质量。

   范文

   June 20th,2014

   Dear Mr./Ms.Editor,

   I am a student from Tsinghua University and I am writing to you about my experience of buying a dictionary and my complaint about the service of a bookstore.

   It was about a month ago.I went to a bookstore nearby the university to buy an English dictionary.It was only after I paid for the dictionary and returned to school that I found some pages were missing.But when I went back to the bookstore to tell them about the matter,they said that I should have checked the dictionary before I left the store.According to them,it was my fault and they hold no responsibility for the whole matter.

   What I want to say is that sincerity and enthusiasm are vital to the survival of service industries in the market economy featured by fierce competition.It was quite easy for them to change the dictionary for me but they refused to do so.They will lose all customers if they persist in doing so.I hope that this letter can draw the attention of the whole society and that the problem can be solved as soon as possible.

   Best regards.

   Yours sincerely,

   Li Ming

   译文

   2014年6月20日

   亲爱的编辑先生/女士:

   我是一名清华大学的学生,我给您写信是反映我购买字典的一次经历并对一个书店的服务投诉。

   大约一个月前,我去学校附近的一家书店购买一本英文字典。我付完款回到学校时才发现字典里少了一些页。但是,当我回到书店告诉他们此事时,他们说我应该在离开书店之前检查好字典。按他们的说法,这是我的错,他们对整件事情没有责任。

   我想说的是,在竞争激烈的市场经济中,诚意和热情对服务行业的生存来说是至关重要的。他们给我换一本字典是很容易的事,但他们拒绝这样做。如果他们坚持这样,他们将失去所有的顾客。我希望这封信能引起全社会的关注,也希望这一问题可以尽快得到解决。

   最诚挚的问候。

   此致

   敬礼

   李明

   2.求职信(模拟题)

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter of application for a job.You should write at least 150 words and you should base your composition on the outline(given in Chinese)below:

   假定你是李明,是北京大学(Peking University)一名计算机专业的学生。你在China Daily上看到一则招聘广告:Microsoft China要招聘软件工程师。你认为自己符合条件,请写一封申请信。

   范文

   June 17th,2014

   Dear Sir/Madam,

   I am responding to your advertisement in China Daily on June 10th,2014,which invites applications for software engineers.Enclosed with this letter is my resume which details my background.

   I believe that I am the best candidate for this position.In the first place,I have been studying computer science for four years in Peking University,one of the most prestigious universities in China,which has provided me with a desirable command of computer skills.In the second place,I have taken part in a number of social activities in the past years,which have helped cultivate my team spirit and creativity.Besides,I have attended computer programming training courses and have obtained related certificates.Last but not least,I have worked as a part?time computer programmer,so I am well prepared for this job.

   I would treasure the chance and exert every effort to do a good job if I had the luck to be provided with the position.Besides,I shall be much obliged if you will afford me an opportunity for an interview,and I appreciate a response from you at your earliest convenience.

   Thank you for considering this application.

   Best regards.

   Yours sincerely,

   Li Ming

   译文

   2014年6月17日

   尊敬的先生/女士:

   我是看了2014年6月10日贵公司在《中国日报》上招聘软件工程师的广告才给您写这封信的。随信附上我的简历,详细列明我的背景。

   我相信我是这个职位的最佳人选。首先,我在中国最负盛名的大学之一 ——北京大学学习了四年计算机科学,这使我很好地掌握了计算机技能。其次,在过去几年中我参加了很多社会活动,这有助于培养我的团队精神和创造力。此外,我还参加了计算机编程培训课程,并获得了相关证书。最后但同样重要的是,我做过兼职计算机程序设计师,所以我对这份工作有充分的准备。

   如果我有幸能得到这个职位,我会珍惜这个机会,尽一切努力做好我的工作。此外,如果您愿意给我提供面试的机会,我将非常感激。感谢您在您方便时尽早回应。

   感谢您考虑我的申请。

   最诚挚的问候。

   此致

   敬礼

   李明

   3.(2005年12月真题)

   Directions:For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter to a company declining a job offer.You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:

   1.对公司提供职位表示感谢。

   2.解释为何不能接受所提供的职位。

   3.希望予以谅解,并表达对公司的良好祝愿。

   范文

   December 24,2005

   Dear Sir/Madam,

   I am responding to your job offer on December 20th,2005.I was informed that I would be offered the job as an interpreter for your company.I cordially appreciate your trust and I am much obliged to you for providing me with the chance.However,I am afraid that I cannot accept it.

   I believe that I am not the best candidate for this position.In the first place,I have been studying computer for four years,which has not provided me with a desirable command of English skills,though I might have spoken English relatively fluently during the interview.In the second place,I have not taken part in many social activities in the past years,which means I am not very good at communication.Besides,I have not attended any training courses for interpretation or obtained any related certificates.Last but not least,I have never even worked as a part?time interpreter,so I am poorly prepared for this job.

   Nonetheless,I want to express my sincere gratefulness again and I earnestly apologize for any inconvenience hereby caused.Finally,I hope you can find the ideal candidate as soon as possible.

   Best regards.

   Yours sincerely,

   Li Ming

   译文

   2005年12月24日

   尊敬的先生/女士:

   我是就贵公司在2005年12月20日给我提供的工作机会写这封信的。贵公司告知我我将得到口译员的职位。我衷心感激贵公司的信任以及为我提供的这一机会。然而,我恐怕不能接受这一职位。

   我认为我不是这个职位的最佳人选。首先,尽管我在面试中英语口语比较流利,但我四年来一直学的是计算机,并未很好地掌握英语技能。其次,在过去几年中我并未参加很多社会活动,这意味着我并不是特别擅长交流。此外,我也未参加任何口译培训课程或获得任何相关证书。最后但同样重要的是,我甚至连兼职口译员都没有做过,所以我对这份工作并没有准备好。

   然而,我想再次表达我真诚的谢意,并且为由此引起的不便诚恳地道歉。最后,我希望你们尽早找到理想的人选。

   最真挚的问候。

   此致

   敬礼

   李明

(七)模板变脸

   其实,好的写法绝不止一种,我们也可以总结出书信作文的其他模板,如下面文章中画线的部分:

   June 17th,2014

   To Whom It May Concern,

   I am writing in response to your advertisement in China Daily on June 10th,2014,which recruits software engineers.Attached to this letter is my resume which expounds my background.

   I believe that I am the best qualified for this position.First and foremost,I have been studying computer science for four years in Peking University,one of the most prestigious universities in China,which has provided me with an ideal mastery of computer skills.Secondly,I have participated in a number of social activities in the past years,which have helped develop my team spirit and creativity.Moreover,I have accepted professional training for programming and have been awarded related certificates.Last but not least,I have worked as a part?time computer programmer,so I am rather experienced for this job.

   I will value the chance and spare no effort to perform well if I am lucky enough to be offered the position.Besides,I shall be much grateful if you will provide me with an opportunity for an interview,and I appreciate a reply from you at your earliest convenience.

   Best regards.

   Yours sincerely,

   Li Ming


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