行业英语 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 行业英语 > 法律英语 > 法律英语讲解 >  内容

法律文件的句子结构

所属教程:法律英语讲解

浏览:

qinting

2019年05月09日

手机版
扫描二维码方便学习和分享
尽管随着时代的变迁,法律英语也呈现了一些简化趋势,但与日常英语相比,法律文件中依然会出现不少结构复杂、文词冗长的句子,这与法律规定和合同条款的表述刻意追求精确、严密木无关系。拟定规定和条款,最主要的是确立主题事项,但有时候还必须顾及实施的依据、   前提、条件、假设、例外情况等,这就要借助相应的状语修饰语(短语和从句)续密地表达规定和条款的完整意思。由此形成的英语复合句不
可能不长。另外,法律文件最突出的特点是客观公正,不带主观色彩,   因而句子中较少出现人称主语,更多的是被动语态和名词化结构。下面拟对法律文件的这两个句法特点作一些分析。

1)结构复杂的长句

法律文件的句子,根据其内容有长有短,但长句出现的频率相对较高。长句的形成,是因为句子中有众多起修饰作用的定语和状语,如:
If, after the signing of this Agreement, the Chinese government either at the State, provincial, municipal or local level adopts any new law, regulation, decree or rule, amends or repeals any provision of any law, regulation, decree or rule, or adopts any different interpretation or method of implementation of any law, regulation,decree or rule, which contravenes
this Agreement or which materially and adversely affects a Party’s economic
benefit under this Agreement, then upon written notice thereof from the affected party to the other Party, the Party shall promptly consult and  decide whether(i)to continue to implement the Agreement in accordance with the original provisions thereof as per the relevant provisions of the Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China; or(ii)to effectuate necessary adjustments in order to preserve each Party’s economic benefit under this Agreement on a basis no less favorable than the economic benefit it would have received if such law, regulation, decree or rule had not been adopted, amended,repealed or so Interpreted or implemented.
上面这个句子的主句前面有一个很长的条件状语从句和时间状语,   主句本身也有多个状语,而且状语从句中又有表示时间的状语和定语从句,修饰语套修饰语,一个接一个叠加,一环扣一环相连,构成了复杂的修饰和被修饰关系。要理解并翻译这个长句的完整意思,必须首先弄清楚句子里各个成分的相互关系。

2)被动语态和名词化结构

与文学作品多用主动语态以增强表现力度和动感迥然不同,法律文   件旨在对人们的行为做出法律规定,规范各种经济活动在没有具体人物   执行某一动作,或表述重点在于动作本身而不在于动作执行者的情况下,把动词转化为抽象化的名词和使用被动语态恰恰适合法律英语庄重刻板的文体特点。下面的例子充分反映出法律文件的这一句法特征:
Unless otherwise provided for herein, failure or delay on the part of  any party to exercise any right, power or privilege under this Agreement shall not operate as a waiver thereof, not shall any single or partial exercise of any right,power or privilege preclude further exercise thereof or exercise of any other right, power or privilege.A waiver by one of the parties at any time of a breach of any term or provision of this Agreement committed by the other party shall not be construed as a waiver by such party of any subsequent breach to be committed by the other party, nor shall it be construed as a waiver by such party of its rights under such provision or any of its other rights under this Agreement.
上面的这条合同条款中,有这样一些源自动词的抽象化名词,如: failure, delay, waiver, exercise, breach;被动结构则有 unless otherwise provided for herein, shall not be construed as 等。

内容来自 听力课堂网:/show-7844-448780-1.html
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂
微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐